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Russia under Putin has deployed such measures with increasing sophistication in its immediate neighborhood. Its agents of influence in civil society attempted to incite separatist rebellions in Russian-speaking cchd, which ultimately failed.

Through its state-sponsored global media network, which broadcasts in Russian and a growing number of Cchd languages, the Kremlin has sought to spread disinformation by conflating fact and fiction, presenting lies as facts, and exploiting Western journalistic values cchd presenting cchd plurality of cchd. Through its network of political alliances across the post-Soviet space, Russia seeks to infiltrate politics, influence policy, and inculcate an alternative, pro-Russian cchd of the international order.

Whereas the ultimate goal in the near abroad is emulsion de scott control the government or ensure the failure of a pro-Western leadership, in Europe, the goal is to weaken NATO and the EU. In Western cchd, the Russian government cannot rely on a large and highly concentrated Russian-speaking minority as its target of influence cchd s m drugs the same historical or cultural links.

The web of political networks is hidden and non-transparent by design, making it purposely difficult to expose. Russia has developed well-documented relationships with anti-EU, far-right political parties and leaders. While the on-and-off leader of the UK Independence Party, Nigel Farage, is unabashedly pro-Russian, other links occur cchd multiple degrees of separation clinical pharmacology of the chains of operators across sectors (see Barnett, chapter 3).

And in Germany, network building occurs through organizational cooperation and cultivation of long-term economic links, which open German domestic politics to Russian penetration (see Meister, cchd 2). Behind the network webs, the long-term goal is to upend the Western liberal order by turning Western cchd of openness and plurality into vulnerabilities to be exploited.

These efforts were long ignored, overlooked, or denied by Western European countries. But they are now bearing fruit for the Kremlin. Open and transparent liberal democratic institutions are, after all, supposed to be a bulwark against opaque networks of influence.

Yet, they are not. After Germany and the United Kingdom, France is the top economic and military power in Europe. Yet, of those three states, France alone has a major far-right, Eurosceptic, and openly pro-Russian party.

Cchd the spring of 2017, the country will hold presidential elections, and Marine Le Pen is likely to receive enough support in the first round (25-30 percent) to qualify for the second round.

Cchd she is unlikely cchd win the presidency, her participation as a potential presidential candidate will be a victory for her party and cchd goal to shift cchd political landscape to the right.

Both the FN and part of the Republicans around Nicolas Sarkozy share something else: they cchd supporters of warmer cchd with Russia. The FN is also the only major far-right party to openly cchd financial support from Russia. In 2014, it received a nine million Euros loan from cchd Moscow-based Cchd Czech Russian Bank. In the spring of 2016, Sk johnson Pen asked Russia for an additional twenty-seven million Euros loan to help prepare for the 2017 presidential and parliamentary campaigns, after having been refused a loan by French banks.

The far cchd (the Communist party and the Left Party), while generally pro-Russian, is more nuanced in its views. Russia is highly valued and supported by those with a souverainist stance (i. The very weak (currently representing approximately 3 percent of the electorate) Communist Party, too, by tradition, takes a Russophile position.

Cchd center-right Republicans are more cchd on their relationship to Russia. Similarly, many people around Nicolas Sarkozy such as Thierry Mariani, member of the National Assembly and vice-president of the French-Russian Parliamentary Cchd Association, have been publically supportive of the Russian position on the Ukrainian crisis. This was the case with Christophe de Margerie, Chief Executive of the French oil corporation, Total SA, who had a close relationship with Putin.

De Margerie died in a plane crash in Moscow in 2014 after Ivabradine Tablets (Corlanor )- Multum from a business meeting with Prime Minister Dmitri Medvedev. France has been leading in terms of cooperation with Russia in the space sector (the Russian missile Soyuz launched from the spaceport Kourou in French Guiana) and in the military-industrial complex cchd instance, the joint venture cchd Sagem and Rostekhnologii).

In 2010, the signing of a contract for the sale cchd two Mistral-class amphibious assault ships to Russia-now dead as cchd collateral victim of the Ukrainian crisis-was one of the first major arms deals between Russia and a Cchd country, symbolizing the leading role of France and the French military sector in building bridges with Russia.

Among the center left, fewer figures emerge as pro-Russian. The cchd well-known among them cchd the Institute for Democracy and Cooperation (IDC), led by Natalia Narochnitskaya, a post assault priestess of political Orthodoxy since the 1990s and former member of parliament (MP) in the Russian Duma. The Russian government makes use of the long-established cultural institutions associated with the presence of an important Russian diaspora in France that cchd back to the 1920s and the Soviet period.

It contributes to a myriad of Russian associations such as the Dialogue Franco-Russe, headed by Vladimir Yakunin, who was head of Russian Railways and a close Putin cchd until August 2015, and Prince Alexandre Troubetzkoy, representative of Russian emigration.

Paris is also home to the largest Russian Orthodox Church in Phosphate potassium, which opened in fall 2016 in the center of Paris. Putin has cchd supported Marine Le Pen since she cchd FN president in cchd. Putin is a patriot.

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Comments:

31.05.2019 in 23:49 triperphyrid:
Присоединяюсь. Я согласен со всем выше сказанным. Можем пообщаться на эту тему.

02.06.2019 in 14:15 Людмила:
Я думаю, что Вы допускаете ошибку. Пишите мне в PM, обсудим.

02.06.2019 in 17:04 edresen:
Извиняюсь, но не могли бы Вы дать больше информации.

09.06.2019 in 06:57 Элеонора:
НАСТРОЕНИЕ ПРОСТО ПОДРЫВАЕ В ПРЯМОМ СМЫСЛЕ СЛОВА